For the past 80 years, antibiotic therapy has played a major role in the treatment of bacterial infectious diseases. Since the discovery of penicillin in 1928 by Fleming and sulfanilamide in 1934 by Domagk, the entire world has benefited from one of the greatest medical advancements in history. The discovery of safe, systemic antibiotics has been a major factor in the control of infectious diseases and, as such, has increased life expectancy and the quality of life for millions of people. Ac- cording to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, life expectancy of individuals in the United States born in 1900 was 47 years, while those born in 2005 is projected to be 78 years. At the beginning of the 20th century, the infant (< 1 year) mortality rate in the United States was 100/1,000 live births compared to 6.7/1,000 in 2006. The major reason for these phenomenal achievements has been the ability to control infectious diseases.
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